The city of Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination, and not without cause. Athens began as a small, Mycenaen community and grew to become a city that, at its height, epitomized the best of Greek virtues and enjoyed such prestige that the Spartans refused to sack the city or enslave the citizens, even after Athens’ defeat in the Peloponnesian War. This set a model that would be followed by future conquerors who would defeat Athens but not destroy it.
Evidence of human habitation on the Acropolis and, below, in the area around the Agora, dates back clearly as far as 5000 BCE and, probably, as early as 7000 BCE. According to legend, the Athenian King Cecrops named the city after himself but the gods, seeing how beautiful it was, felt it deserved an immortal name. A contest was held among the gods on the Acropolis, with Cecrops and the citizenry looking on, to determine which deity would win the honor. Poseidon struck a rock with his trident and, as water gushed forth, he assured the people that now they would never suffer drought. Athena was next in line and dropped a seed into the earth which sprouted swiftly as an olive tree. The people thought the olive tree more valuable than the water (as, according to some versions of the story, the water was salty, as was Poseidon’s realm) and Athena was chosen as patron and the city named for her.
Under Pericles, Athens entered her golden age and great thinkers, writers, and artists flourished in the city As the soil was not conducive to large-scale agricultural programs, Athens turned to trade for its livelihood and, mainly, to sea trade. The early Mycenaean period (c. 1550 – 1100 BCE) saw massive fortresses rise all over Greece, and Athens was no exception. The remains of a Mycenaean palace can still be seen today on the Acropolis. Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey portray the Mycenaeans as great warriors and seafaring people, and there is no doubt they traded widely throughout the Aegean and Mediterranean region. In c. 1200 BCE the Sea Peoples invaded the Greek archipelago of the Aegean from the south while, simultaneously, the Dorians came down from the north into mainland Greece. While the Sea Peoples made definite incursions into Attica (the mainland region surrounding Athens) the Dorians by-passed the city, allowing the Mycenaean culture to survive (although, like the rest of Greece, there seems to have been an economic and cultural downturn following these invasions). The Athenians, afterward, claimed for themselves a special status in that they spoke Ionian, instead of Doric, Greek and held to customs they felt were superior to their neighbors.
Caryatids of the Erechtheion Athenian Government & Laws
The wealthy aristocrats held control of both the land and the government and, in time, poorer land owners became enslaved (or nearly so) through debt to the more wealthy. Further, there was a perceived lack of consistency among the other laws of the city. The first series of laws written to address these problems were provided by the statesman Draco (also known as Dracon/Drakon) in c. 621 BCE but were considered too severe (the penalty for most infractions was death), and so the great lawgiver Solon was called upon to modify and revise them. Solon, though an aristocrat himself, created a series of laws which equalized the political power of the citizenry and, in so doing, laid the groundwork for democracy in Athens in 594 BCE. After Solon resigned from public office various factional leaders sought to seize power and the ultimate victor, Peisistratos, recognized the value of Solon’s revisions and kept them, in a modified form, throughout his reign as a benevolent tyrant. His son, Hippias, continued his policies until his younger brother, Hipparkhos, was assassinated over a love affair in 514 BCE. After this Hippias instituted a reign of terror which finally culminated in the overthrow of the Peisistratid tyranny in the Athenian Revolt of 510 BCE (backed by Sparta and lead by the Spartan Kleomenes). In the aftermath of the coup, and after settling affairs with Spartan factions such as Isagoras’s bid for power, Cleisthenes was appointed to reform the government and the laws and, in 507 BCE, he instituted a new form of government which today is recognized as Democracy. According to the historian Waterfield, “The pride that followed from widespread involvement in public life gave Athenians the energy to develop their city both internally and in relation to their neighbors”. This new form of government would provide the stability necessary to make Athens the cultural and intellectual center of the ancient world; a reputation which lasts even into the modern age.
After the Athenians (with the help of Plataeans) defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE and, again, after driving off a second Persian invasion at Salamis in 480 BCE (and soundly defeating the Persians at Plataea and Mycale in 479 BCE), Athens emerged as the supreme naval power in Greece. They formed the Delian League, ostensibly to create a cohesive Greek network among city-states to ward off further Persian attacks, and, under the leadership of Pericles, grew so powerful that the Athenian Empire could effectively dictate the laws, customs, and trade of all her neighbors in Attica and the islands of the Aegean. The historian Waterfield writes: There is no little irony in the fact that one of the things we most admire in the ancient Greeks is their love of freedom – and yet one of the chief manifestations of that love was their constant striving to control in some way the futures of their neighbors.
The Golden Age
Even so, under Pericles, Athens entered her golden age and great thinkers, writers, and artists flourished in the city. Herodotus, the `father of history’, lived and wrote in Athens. Socrates, the `father of philosophy’, taught in the marketplace. Hippocrates, `the father of medicine’, practiced there. The sculptor Phidias created his great works for the Parthenon on the Acropolis and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Democritus envisioned an atomic universe. Aeschylus, Euripedes, Aristophanes, and Sophocles wrote their famous plays and Pindar his Odes. This legacy would continue as, later, Plato would found his Academy outside the walls of Athens in 385 BCE and, later, Aristotle’s Lyceum would be founded in the city centre.
The might of the Athenian Empire encouraged an arrogance in the policy makers of the day which grew intolerable to her neighbors. When Athens sent troops to help Sparta put down a Helot rebellion, the Spartans refused the gesture and sent the Athenian force back home in dishonor, thus provoking the war which had long been brewing. Later, when Athens sent their fleet to help defend its ally Cocyra (Corfu) against a Corinthian invasion during the Battle of Sybota in 433 BCE, their action was interpreted by Sparta as aggression instead of assistance, as Corinth was an ally of Sparta.
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) between Athens and Sparta (though involving, directly or indirectly, all of Greece) ended in disaster for Athens after her defeat. Her empire and her wealth gone, her walls destroyed, only her reputation as a great seat of learning and culture prevented the sack of the city and the enslavement of the populace. Athens struggled to throw off her condition as a subject state, and with some success, until they were defeated in 338 BCE by the Macedonian forces under Philip II at Chaeronea. Athens was then subject to Macedonian rule until their defeat by the Romans in 197 BCE at the Battle of Cynocephalae after which Greece was methodically conquered by the Roman Empire. It is a tribute to an enduring legacy that the Roman general Sulla, who sacked Athens in 87-86 BCE, slaughtered the citizenry, and burned the port of Piraeus, refused to allow his soldiers to burn the city itself. In the modern age the name of Athens still conjures to the mind words and images of the classical world and the heights of intellectual and poetic creativity, while the Parthenon on the Acropolis continues to symbolize the golden age of ancient Greece.
Sounion (or Sunium) was a significant old Greek strict asylum consecrated to the divine beings Poseidon and Athena. Tremendously situated on a projection in southern Attica, the site is overwhelmed by the sanctuary of Poseidon roosted on the bluff edge, seventy meters over the ocean. Sounion is the setting for a few scenes in Greek folklore and is explicitly referenced as a position of strict importance in Homer’s Odyssey. In certain fantasies, it is where the Athenian lord Aegeus hurled himself entirely into the ocean in despair at having located the dark sail of his child Theseus’ boat getting back from Crete and his fight with the Minotaur. Theseus had recently masterminded to show a white sail to demonstrate his protected return however it slipped he’s mind thus his dad unnecessarily committed suicide. The Aegean ocean is named after the awful ruler. It is likewise where Phrontis, one of Menelaus’ chiefs, kicked the bucket on the return journey from the Trojan War, murdered by wrathful Apollo, who had upheld the Trojans in the contention. Sounion gained its strict importance from the seventh century BCE and had one sanctuary devoted to Athena and another to Poseidon. The asylum went under the locale of the deme of Sounion which had its middle toward the north in the Agrilesa Valley and acquired its abundance from marble and silver. The site obtained its strict importance from the seventh century BCE and had one sanctuary committed to Athena and another to Poseidon, lord of the ocean. The principal stone sanctuary to Athena was developed in the fifth century BCE in the Ionic style and had an unordinary lopsided structure. The main stone sanctuary to Poseidon was likewise developed in the mid fifth century BCE yet was obliterated before finish by the Persians around 480 BCE and was supplanted by another marble sanctuary. The hallowed zone of the sanctuary to Poseidon was entered through an amazing entryway or propylaea which had a two Doric segment façade making three passageways, the focal estimating 2.2 meters wide. Inside the complex, there were stoas on the west, south, and north sides. The last was the biggest and its length estimated 25 meters with 8 or 9 Doric sections on its façade and 6 inside segments, while the width of the stoa was 9 meters. This stoa was likely utilized by guests to the safe-haven as a wellspring of sanctuary from sun or downpour. The second and enduring sanctuary of Poseidon was based upon the poros base of its archetype utilizing the locally unadulterated white marble from Agrileza. The sanctuary is peripteral, that is segments were on all sides – 6 on the façades and 13 on the long sides, each 6.12 meters tall. The sanctuary is likewise amphiprostyle as the external lines of segments are of a similar request as the inward cella segments. The segments convey just 16 woodwinds instead of the standard 20, maybe an endeavor by the planner to decrease enduring in a particularly uncovered site. Inside the sanctuary stood a sculpture of Poseidon (which has not endure) and the site’s votive fortunes would have been kept in the internal opisthodomos. The external architrave (and presumably pediments as well) didn’t convey any compositional model yet the internal pronaos frieze conveyed design that portrayed scenes from folklore like a fight with centaurs. Sanctuary of Poseidon, Sounion, Greece Sounion was deliberately significant in controlling boats entering the Saronic bay and, as indicated by Thucydides, fortresses were built in 414 BCE by Athens (found only 67 km from the site) which were reached out in the third century BCE with the expansion of boat sheds. The territory proceeded to create and stay significant in the Hellenistic time frame. Sounion additionally got engaged with the Chremonidean War (266-229 BCE) and the resulting Macedonian occupation under Antigonus. In any case, Athens recaptured control of the asylum when Aratus paid off the nearby commandant Diogenes into surrendering it after military activity had recently fizzled. In the second century, BCE Sounion was the focal point of a slave defiance when it was involved by over 1,000 slaves from the close by Lavrion silver mines. Following the conclusion of the mine without further ado subsequently, Sounion started a consistent decay and everything except vanished from Mediterranean undertakings. Archeological finds from the site incorporate two obsolete titanic marble kouroi sculptures which date from around 600 BCE, fourteen etched boards from the sanctuary of Poseidon, a fine help tablet of a triumphant competitor, and a seventh century BCE lead kouros sculpture from the Temple of Athena.